Oława is located in southern Poland, in the eastern part of Lower Silesia, southeast of Wrocław, by the rivers Oława and Odra.
The city arose between the two rivers, Odra and Oława, protected by them and other wetlands, at a crossing point over Odra. Oława was first a trading post and then a fortified settlement. The town is first mentioned in a document from 1149, where it was given as a gift to the Benedictine monastery in Ołbin near Wrocław.
Half a century later, Henryk I Brodaty (Henry the Bearded), Silesian ruler of the Piast line, became the owner of the city. This family subsequently owned Oława for hundreds of years.
At the transition between the 12th and 13th centuries. got Oława marketplace rights. Based on the preserved documents, it can be assumed that the year was 1234, but the oldest preserved city stamp is actually 100 years older. In 1282, a castle is mentioned, which must mean that at that time a castle existed in the city.
In the first half of the 15th year. the city suffered greatly during the first Hussite wars and then plague and famine. From 1526, all of Silesia came under the rule of the Austrian royal family Habsburgs. In the first half of the 17th century, the city was allowed to mint its own coin called “The town of Olawa’s New Silver Coin”.
The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), which was basically a conflict between the Catholic Habsburg regime and a number of Protestant powers, but which developed into a general European conflict, also affected Oława; the Swedish army first left the city in 1649.
After the battle between Austria and Prussia for the rule of Silesia, Oława came under Prussia in 1741.
During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1806, there was a battle at Oława between French and Prussian forces. After that, the victorious French army occupied the city, where it remained for two years.
Intensive Germanization took place in the 19th century, although in 1824 only 10% of the population in the area spoke German. At the same time, industrialization took off, and (1842) a railway line was built between Wrocław and Oława. This connection is the oldest in present-day Poland. The rapid industrial development also had positive effects on developments in culture, education, sports and urban beautification.
World War II meant great losses and suffering for the city, partly by relocating the main industrial plants to central Germany and partly by actual war actions, in the center itself became approx. 50% more or less destroyed.
From May 1, 1945, the Polish administration began operations in Oława. Immediately after the war, most German inhabitants were expelled to Germany. In 1950, there were almost 8,000 inhabitants of the city, a large proportion of whom were migrants from the eastern regions. The most important task in the years following the war was the demolition of the buildings that had been destroyed during the war, as well as a subsequent reconstruction. The biggest investment here was the rebuilding of the castle.
First, approx. Twenty years after the war, it began to advance again for the city. In the period following the system change in 1989, many new private companies emerged in the city, including some foreign or with the participation of foreign capital. Also important was the construction of a wastewater treatment plant as well as a new landfill. In 1912, the new municipal bathhouse was inaugurated.
The present town hall was built in 1823 in the neoclassical style. The oldest part of the town hall is the Baroque-style tower. There have been several town hall buildings in the past, the first probably from the 1300s. The next town hall was from 1585; this burned and was rebuilt in 1637-68. To that end, the tower was added, which has remained largely unchanged today and is still the most impressive part of the building. In the tower there is – above the clock – a view gallery. Currently, the building is the seat of the City Council and also houses the Oława District Museum and a library.
Town Hall clock
The figurative-astronomical clock on the town hall tower dates from the 17th century. and shows, in addition to time, lunar phases. Several figures appear in connection with the clock, thus Death with its laughter. The very extensive and complicated mechanism behind the clock occupies several floors of the tower.
This is a 16th-16th-century Renaissance-Baroque-style building built on the site of a late 13th-century hunting castle of Prince Ludwik I. The castle has undergone several redevelopments over time. Currently, the municipal administration has premises in the building. However, the City Council Hall is now in the newly renovated City Hall.
The Comforter of the Mother of God
The first known mention of this church dates from 1201. The oldest part of the present church is the Gothic choir from ca. year 1300 as well as the lower part of the tower with the sacristy.
The Municipal Waterpark
A water park that also houses many other amenities such as sports facilities, rehabilitation rooms and eateries.
Immediately east and northeast of the city are large forests.
Odra, the second largest river in Poland, runs – here from south to north – through the eastern outskirts of the city.
Fishing is possible in Odra and the river is – almost of course – navigable; tourists can enjoy sailing trips to respectively. Brzeg and Wrocław. Through Oława the river divides into three branches: the main race and two narrower races. At two of these races, chamber locks have been built. In the middle race – called Kanał Młyński – a hydroelectric plant was built.
Oława – locally also called Oławka to avoid confusion with the city name – runs through the city center. The river has its outlet in Odra just before the Grunwaldzki Bridge in Wrocław. Oława is navigable, so you can sail from here to Wrocław.
Oława – here links to download PDF and Word documents
Oława – here links to download PDF and Word documents
Translated into English by Google Translate. Spangshus.dk accept no liability for any errors or omissions in translation.