Przemyśl


The castle of Przemyśl, as it appears today. – Photo by: Jerzy Strzelecki, Przemysl1, CC BY 3.0

Distance

Tyczyn
71 km NV,
Dynów
46 km V,
Zagórz
76 km SV,
Iwonicz-Zdrój
197 km SV,
Kańczuga
43 km NV,
Medyka (grænse)
13 km E,
Radymno
20 km N,
Brzozów
75 km SV, 103 km SV, 33 km NV, 94 km SV, 60 km NV, 72 km SV, 56 km NE, 49 km NV, 97 km SV, 82 km NV, 70 km SV, 86 km NV, 76 km SV

Population

66.229 (2010)

Location and history

Przemyśl is located in the eastern part of Podkarpacie county, near the border with Ukraine. The town lies on both sides of the river San, a right tributary to Wisła. The main road links are the west-eastbound Highway 28 from Zator to Medyka at the border with Ukraine. To the north, highway no.77 connects to the west-eastbound highway no.4 (E40 motorway) from the German border to the Ukrainian border. From the main train station in Przemyśl, the railway is led across the river north of the old town; on the left bank there is a smaller station: Zasanie. From here, the line continues towards Rzeszów.
Przemyśl is the oldest – and the second largest – city in the region and one of the oldest cities in Poland. The Latin name of the city was Premislia. In the early Middle Ages, the city was part of a land area called Grody Czerwieńskie, comprising the southeastern part of present-day Poland, west of Chełm, Leżajsk and Biecz, and part of present-day Ukraine. This area was for a long time disputed between Poland and the Kiev war (Kievskaya Rus’).
The city was at one time the capital of an independent principality and from 1344 the capital of the vast Przemyśl Land. After the first division of Poland, Przemyśl came under Austria as one of the cities of the province of Galicia. – After Poland's rebirth after World War I, the town first belonged to Lwów County – until 1939. 1945-1975 it was part of Rzeszów County. 1975-1998 Przemyśl was the capital of the county of the same name – that is, before the present great Podkarpacie county was created. The city is now the center city of Przemyśl district; moreover, the city itself has a district status.
In Przemyśl there is an archdiocese seat for both the Roman Catholic and the Greek Catholic Church; moreover, the city contains other religious communities: Protestant congregations, Methodist, Adventist, Baptist, Pentecostal, and Jehovah's Witnesses. – Przemyśl is a multicultural city, especially there has always been a large Ukrainian population.
The city's business community houses several companies in the wood industry, color industry. cosmetic industry and manufacture of coated fabric. In addition, there are traditional crafts, including not least pipe making.
In Przemyśl, the weekly newspaper Życie Podkarpackie (Life in Podkarpacie) is published as well as five other magazines, including a cultural magazine.
The city is the seat of several institutions of a regional nature; Here can be mentioned the county conservator for Podkarpacie county, customs office, Border Guard Bieszczady department, State Archives department with huge collections, a county hospital and a military hospital.
In Przemyśl there are several higher education institutions: the School of Law and Administration, the School of Informatics and Management, the School of Economics, the Seminary, the State Eastern European College, the Teacher College of Foreign Languages, Aleksander Fredro-Teacher College.


Artistic production of Przemyśl from about 1600, seen from the north across the river San. – You can see the city wall with brick towers and 3 gate towers and on the slope of the mound you can see the castle. -By: anonymous, Premislia, mark as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons

It is assumed that the settlement dates back to the 8th century. In the 9th century, the area came under the West Slavic empire, Stormähren. Subsequently, the area in which the city is located, which at the time was called Grody Czerwieńskie, was disputed between Poland and the East Slavic Kiev war. It is known that in 981 (by the name of Peremyšl´) Przemyśl belonged to the Kiev war. This mention, which mentions the year 981, is due to Russian chronicle writer Nestor. By contrast, researchers still dispute the extent to which the city was Polish prior to 981. In 1018, the city came under Poland, but was recaptured by Kievskaja Rus’ in 1031. 40 years later (1071) Przemyśl was captured by the Poles. Shortly after the conquest, probably in 1072, the Polish prince Bolesław II Szczodry set up a bishopric in Przemyśl, with the abbot of a monastery in Sandomierz being appointed bishop. From 1085 to 1269, the city was the capital of an independent Russian subdivision, ruled by the prince Rjurikowič. In 1340 – under King Kazimierz Wielki – the principality of which the city was then a part, now called Halicz-Przemyśl, was incorporated into Poland.
As a result of Poland's first division in 1772, Przemyśl joined the southern part of Małopolska during the Austrian Empire. The city became the capital of one of the 20 districts (Bezirke) in the province of Galicia. After a few years the city wall and the town hall were demolished and six monasteries were demolished. The Monastery of the Dominican Monks was set up as the seat of the district administration and the Monastery of the Dominican Monks was converted into a hospital for the Austrian army. In the first half of the 19th century, a downturn for the city followed – exacerbated by several floods and epidemics. In the second half of the century, however, it progressed again, among other things. because of the new railway line connecting Vienna to Kraków and Lwów from 1861. A few years later there was a direct connection to Budapest. Przemyśl was expanded far beyond the former city walls, and the city was still the third and third most important city in Galicia – after Lwów and Kraków.
Under Austrian rule, defenses were built – aimed at the threat from Russia – around the city, which transformed Przemyśl into the third largest fortress in Europe. The fortress was home to a military garrison. By 1914, 140,000 soldiers had been stationed here. During World War I, the city – ie. as the Austro-Hungarian Fortress Przemyśl – besieged 2 times. Once – in 1915 – the fortress was taken by the Russians, but later in the same year recaptured by Austrian and German forces.
During World War II, approx. 45% of the city suffered devastation, especially the Jewish quarter and suburbs. The cathedral and part of the Franciscan church were destroyed. In Zasanie on the left bank, the Benedictine Nuns burned the church and monastery buildings.
Until World War II, the city had a substantial Jewish population, according to the inhabitants of the Jewish faith. a 1931 census accounted for 29.5% of the total population. It is documented that the Jews of Przemyśl were the first settlement of Jews on Polish soil. The Jews had four synagogues in the city. After World War II, two of these no longer exist. The third synagogue – at ul.Słowackiego – now serves as a public library. The last one – in the Zasanie district – stands as an empty ruin.
In the fall of 1944, the Soviet authorities created – ie. concrete NKVD (People's Commissioner for Internal Affairs) – a review camp for soldiers from Armia Krajowa (Home Army) and other opponents of the Soviet occupation. From here, the prisoners were transferred to other prisons, i.a. at the castle in Rzeszów or to camps in Siberia.
At the border post World War II, Przemyśl was located in Polish territory, but only a few kilometers west of the Ukrainian border, which cut off the city from much of its natural commercial catchment. After the killings of the Jews during the war and the expulsion of many Ukrainians after the war, the city had lost a large part of its population. This decline in the population was countered by many Poles from the former Eastern Galicia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the border with Ukraine became more open, and a more natural trade relationship became the basis.


Panorama of Przemyśl. – Photo by: Goku122, Przemyśl Panorama 31-08-2009, CC BY-SA 4.0

Tourist attractions

Borgen (Zamek)
The castle was built after 1340 by King Kazimierz Wielki (the Great) on the slope of the castle mound southwest of the center, ie. just outside the original city wall. Foundations for a Romanesque basilica and foundations from a monastery building have been found in the courtyard. The castle was rebuilt in the 16th century. in the Renaissance style. Today, the building houses the Drama Company's theater hall as well as the oldest amateur stage in Poland.

The Roman Catholic Cathedral (Archived rhyme coconut oil)
there is the archdiocese's main church, built in the Gothic style in the 15th and 16th centuries. at the site of an even older Romanesque church, the remains of which are preserved in the basement. The cathedral was rebuilt in the 18th century. in Baroque style. Near the cathedral stands the Archbishop's Palace and a late baroque bell tower (71 meters in height), a characteristic element of the cityscape.

The Greek Catholic Cathedral (Archicatedra greckokatolicka)
The building is the former Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a Baroque church erected to the Jesuits in the 17th century. In the 20th century. was the building garrison church. In 1991, Pope John Paul II transferred the church to the Greek-Catholic congregation as the cathedral for the Greek-Catholic archdiocese. At the cathedral stands a modern bell tower and behind this is the archdiocese museum housed in the former Jesuit college.

Przemyśl-Landet National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe Ziemi Przemyskiej)
The museum was founded in 1909 and its collections consist of approx. 80 thousand objects in archeology, history, art and ethnography, approx. 280,000 fragments of archaeological finds, especially pottery. The museum has a library of about 35,000 volumes, including 98 manuscripts, approx. 400 incunables and 600 units. card materials.

The Carmelite Monastery and the Abbey Church
is built on a slope high above the old town and dates from the 17th century. While this part of Poland was under Austrian rule, the church was handed over to the Greek Catholic congregation, which furnished it into a cathedral while the convent buildings were rebuilt. In recent years, the Carmelites by new redevelopments have given the church and monastery buildings their original appearance as well as a renovation of the interior.

The bell tower (Wieża Zegarowa)
is built in the 18th century. in late Baroque style as a bell tower to the planned but never erected, Greek Catholic cathedral. For 123 years, the tower was used by the fire department as a fire tower and observation point. The tower now houses an interesting and unique collection namely the Museum of Bells and Pipes, and from the view balcony there is a beautiful panorama of the old town.

Franciscan
is built in the 18th century. at the site of a former Gothic church building. The interior of the church is richly equipped with sculptures and frescoes and preferably kept in a rococo style.

Townhouses on the square
There are interesting townhouses in the square. They are from the 16th and 17th centuries. and stands on all three of the original four sides of the square. Note the sloping part of the square, where there used to be a Renaissance town hall, which was demolished by the Austro-Hungarian authorities when they took over the administration after the partition of Poland.

The City History Museum in Przemyśl
is located in a house from the 16th century. with accessible basement rooms. In the museum there are interesting bourgeois interiors, a photographic studio from the 19th century. and exhibitions devoted to the city's more than millennial history.

The former Dominican convent
is from the transition between the 16th and 17th century. When the Austrian authorities had repealed the building, the building became the seat of the district government, since prison and court house and in 1975 the seat of the local county authority. Now the district authorities are housed here. In the square in front of the former monastery stood the Dominican Church, which dates from the 16th century, but was demolished by the Austrian authorities.

The former monastery of the Merciful Brothers
dates from the 17th century. After the order was repealed, various district authorities had houses in the building. In the time of the People's Republic, senior party officials lived in the former monastery. Currently, the building is the seat of the Teachers College for Foreign Languages.

The former Dominican convent
from the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. was furnished by the Austrian authorities to military hospital and since officer's casino. Now the building is a garrison club with a large movie theater. In the basement you will find the Przemyśl Fortress Museum.

Bymuren
The best preserved fragments of the old city wall can be found at ul.Basztowa. This part of the wall dates from the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century. the Austrians let the city wall demolish – or at least most of it. The same fate got the three city gates and 9 brick towers.

Franciscan Reformist Church
from the 17th century. was at one time surrounded by a defensive wall with fire holes and together with the monastery constituted a gate fort (Polish: barbakan, medieval Latin: barbecana) for the now non-existent Lwów town gate (the eastern gate). After the city wall was demolished and the moat filled, the terrain rose so much that the church now seems to be below street level.

Monastery of the Benedictine Nuns
was founded in the 17th century. and surrounded by a defensive wall with towers. In the 18th century. a late Baroque church (Church of the Holy Trinity) was built. The monastery is the oldest building monument in the Zasanie district on the left bank.

Fortress Przemyśl
In the Middle Ages, Przemyśl was a fortified city with a castle raised above it. In the centuries following the end of the Middle Ages, the city, because of its strategic location and military significance, was also a fortress town. During the Austro-Hungarian rule from the end of the 18th century. the city was thought to be a kind of barrier to protect the roads leading from east and north to south and west. When the conflicts between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the Balkan Peninsula intensified in the middle of the 19th century, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), Przemyśl, the central part of Austria-Hungary's defense system to the east, was transformed into fortified military camp.
See a more comprehensive description below: “Surrounding Area” below.

Lubomirski Palace
The mansion is originally a manor house with a main building and breeding farm, located a few kilometers southeast of the center, erected in 1885-87 by Prince Hieronim Lubomirski, after drawings by Kraków architect Maksymilian Nitsch. The district of Bakończyce was once an independent settlement known since the 14th century, when the Hungarian starosta who managed the area built an animal park here. The zoo then turned into an agricultural property. In the 18th century. was the Bakończyce summer residence for starosta’one of Przemyśl. In 1868 Hieronim Lubomirski bought the property of Adam Czartoryski. The family's new mansion was on two floors and had approx. 30 rooms. The building was done in an eclectic style, combining elements of neo-baroque, neo-Gothic and neo-Romanian style. The mansion and surrounding buildings lay in a seven-acre park. Close to the mansion was the breeding farm, which was mainly set for horse breeding and brewery.
During World War I, the property was located within the Przemyśl Fortress. In connection with the acts of war, a fire broke out in the mansion and part of the roof was destroyed. After the outbreak of World War II, Bakończyce and thus the mansion were taken by the Soviet army. The last nominal owner of the property was Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski, who never lived on the site. After the Second World War, the mansion was designed for an agricultural technical school, and from 2001 part of the rooms were taken over by the State College of Business. From 13 June 2006, the mansion is the seat of the State's Eastern European College. The old warehouse has been converted into a modern library. Most buildings in the park have been taken over by departments of the institute. The neo-gothic entrance gate to the park has been renewed.

The Workers' House (Dom Robotniczy)
erected in a modernist style in 1911-1913 on the initiative of Herman Liberman, who also became director of the institution. The house was built for funds derived from the Social Democratic Party and it was the first center for working culture in Galicia. The Workers' House should have both social and cultural functions. The large theater / concert hall filled much of the building. In 1999, the south wing was established for use by the School of Justice and Administration (founded in 1995).

Przemyśl Memorial’s Young Eagles (Pomnik Orląt Przemyskich)
The memorial, located in the Zasanie district, is erected in memory of the young Poles who defended the city against Ukrainians and Russians in the years 1918-1921.

The New Synagogue (Nowa Synagogue)
located at the address ul.Juliusza Słowackiego 15. The building of this synagogue began in 1910. During World War II the Germans set up horse stables in the building and for this reason only the synagogue avoided being demolished. In 1945, immediately after the end of the war, regular services were performed in the building.

Tatar-mound (Kopiec Tatarski)
This is a high, located south of the city where a Tatar khan was reportedly buried in the 16th century. Originally, however, the mound was a cult site where the ancient Slavic gods were worshiped in the past.

The Multicultural Festival “Galicja”
This festival, which includes exhibitions, concerts, theater performances, etc. is held every year, for the first time in September 2003.

Tourist market Podkarpacie (Podkarpacki Jarmark Turystyczny)
with various events, each year the tourist season begins in the city and the surrounding area.

The Polish composer Czesław Marek (1891-1985) was born in Przemyśl.

Surrounding Area


River San at Przemyśl. – Photo by: Birczanin, PrzemyslSan1, mark as public domain, more details on Wikimedia Commons

Fortress Przemyśl
In the Middle Ages, Przemyśl was a fortified city with a castle raised above it. In the centuries following the end of the Middle Ages, the city, because of its strategic location and military significance, was also a fortress town. During the Austro-Hungarian rule from the end of the 18th century. the city was thought to be a kind of barrier to protect the roads leading from east and north to south and west. When the conflicts between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the Balkan Peninsula intensified in the middle of the 19th century, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), Przemyśl, the central part of Austria-Hungary's defense system to the east, was transformed into fortified military camp. The town was surrounded by a 15 km long rampart with ramparts, fortified with 30 bastions, forts, tenaille fortifications and gates. After the rifled firearms were developed and used in the second half of the 19th century, which significantly increased the effectiveness of the weapons, it was necessary to extend the defensive fortifications to the former fortifications so that they were transformed into extensive fortifications. In the years 1888-1914 Przemyśl was transformed into an annular fortification of the first class, the third largest of ca. 200 such that were erected around Europe. On the ridges around the city, a radius of 6-8 kilometers from the city center, on a stretch of approx. 45 km built 44 main and intermediate forts with 1 or 2 walls, unit forts (for footmen and artillery), artillery forts and armor forts. In addition, the former fortifications were modernized and transformed into an inner fortification ring. After the outbreak of World War I, the fortress fulfilled its function during the first siege, stopping a strong Russian army of about 300,000 men heading for the Carpathian Mountains, Kraków and Silesia. During the second siege, the fortress was forced to surrender to the Russian army on 22.3.1915 on 22.3.1915 – after the prior bursting of forts, magazines, weapons and more. On June 3, 1515, the fortress was recaptured by the United Austro-Hungarian and German army forces. During these battles for the fortress, both fighting parties lost approx. 115,000 soldiers – killed, wounded and missing.
In 1968, the destroyed forts were recognized as listed building monuments within the defense architecture. In 1997, Przemyśl was included in the nationwide defense architecture conservation and conservation program.
The forts are today a unique tourist attraction, and for visitors a special tourist route of a total of 82 kilometers has been constructed.

Kopystanka
This mountain, located approx. 20 km southwest of Przemysl, is the highest mountain in the low mountain range southwest of Przemysl. From the top, crowned by a metal cross, at a height of 541 m above sea level, there is an excellent view.

kayaking
For tourists who enjoy water sports, kayaking on the San River can be suggested.

Krasiczyn (9 km west of Przemysl)
The palace. Here you will find the famous Krasicki castle from the beginning of the 17th century, one of the most valuable building monuments in Poland, called the pearl of the Polish Renaissance. Several Polish kings have stayed here: Zygmunt III, Władysław IV, Jan Kazimierz and August II. With its refined architecture, adventurous tower buildings and its decoration, the building is extremely impressive and can withstand the comparison with the most famous castle buildings in the rest of Europe. Beautiful and special are the frescoes that adorn the exterior walls. A park of 20 ha with many rare plants surrounds the castle. The Krasiczyn settlement is located on the banks of the San River, surrounded by beautiful forests. The settlement originated on the outskirts of the village of wnliwnica, which is known from the 14th century. In 1520, the then owner of the village, Wacław Śliwnicki, began erecting a fortified settlement on the site, surrounded by a land vault and a moat. Around 1550, Jakub Krasicki decided to develop the property into an actual castle and at the same time a noble residence. Thirty years later, his son, Stanisław Krasicki, began building the enormous fortified castle.
Near the castle stands the parish church from the 18th century.
On the other side of the road to Sanok are the buildings belonging to the Sapieha brewery (the Sapieha genus were the last owners of the castle).
On the ridge above Krasiczyn, you can see in the forest a number of bunkers belonging to the Molotov line – the Soviet line of defense built in eastern Poland in 1939 by the Soviet occupying power.

Bolestraszyce (6 km northeast of Przemysl)
Arboretum. On a large country estate that formerly belonged to the Michałowski family, is now the largest arboretum in southeastern Poland with rare trees and shrubs, etc. from around the world.
Near the arboretum is one of the main elements of Fortress Przemyśl, namely the ruins of Armor Fort XIII “San Rideau”, built 1892-1896. During the visit to the ruin, the utmost care must be taken.

Siedliska (10 km southeast of Przemysl)
Here you will find elements of the outer defense ring in Fort Przemyśl, namely Fort I “Salis-Soglio”, built 1882-1886. It is an atypical artillery fort that, despite the blast in March 1915, is one of the best preserved parts of the outer ring of the fortress. Thus preserved are: the entrance gate in bricks, the barracks with casing mats, ammunition magazines and elevator shafts, artillery positions and guard rooms for the crew. The fort is only a few meters from the current Polish-Ukrainian border. On the other side of the border are six intermediate works belonging to this fort. If visiting Fort I “Salis-Soglio”, it is also worth seeing the nearby (in the direction of Medyka) Panserfort XV “Borek” from 1897-1900. Both forts are included on the tourist fortress route and the corresponding route description for cycling tourists.

Kuńkowce (4 km west of Przemysl)
Fort VIII “Łętownia” can be traced back to 1854-55, when the Austrians built one of the artillery chances west of Przemyśl west of Przemyśl. In its present form, the fort arose in 1881-1882. During the tourist season you can visit an exhibition dedicated to the Przemyśl Fortress in the interior of the fort.

Posada Rybotycka (about 22 km southwest of Przemyśl)
Saint Onufry’s Church is a foundation walled defense church from the 15th century. originally belonging to the Orthodox Church. It is the oldest Orthodox church in present-day Poland. There was a smaller monastery at the church. After 1945 the church was empty and the building is now a branch of the Przemyśl-Landet National Museum.

Krzywcza (19 km west of Przemysl)
Quite a small town dating from the 14th century. and with quite a few preserved wooden houses. The town was the seat of one of the oldest Roman Catholic congregations in the area. The present church was built in 1625. Near the church is a former manor house with remains of protective vaults from the 17th century. The farm is now furnished for a health center.

Dubiecko (about 30 km west of Przemysl)
A small town that can be traced back to the 15th century. The town's owners were genera like Kmita, Stadnicki, Krasicki and Konarski. In the first half of the 16th century. built here on the San River, a castle surrounded by a ring wall with towers. Here, in 1735, the later bishop and prominent author of the Enlightenment was born: Ignacy Krasicki (died 1801). By the end of the 18th century. the castle was rebuilt to the current mansion.

Kruhel Wielki (about 4 km southwest of Przemyśl)
This is a settlement from the 15th century, located on the slope of a ridge just outside Przemyśl. Above the village, for many centuries, lime has been mined and for some time also marble. On the upper edge of the village is a 1630 Greek-Catholic church, one of the oldest of this type of churches in present-day Poland.

Średnia (about 25 km northwest of Przemysl)
At the top of a wooded ridge above the village of Średnia is the oldest burial mound from the lace-ceramic culture in Poland. The small burial mound where a woman's grave has been found during the archaeological excavations is approx. 5 thousand years old.

Accommodation

Booking.com
Przemyśl (in Polish, Czech, German and English) – with practical information for tourists

Eating Out:

Przemyśl (in Polish, Czech, German and English) – with practical information for tourists

Other Internet sites and sources

Przemyśl (in Polish, Czech, German and English)

Translated into English by Google Translate. Spangshus.dk accept no liability for any errors or omissions in translation.

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